The children explore a broad range of maths work that covers the main areas of ‘Number and Place Value’, ‘Addition and Subtraction’, ‘Multiplication and Division’, ‘Fractions’, ‘Measurements’ and ‘Geometry’.
Number and place value
During the Foundation Stage, children counted and estimated groups of up to 10 objects. In Year 1, children extend their use of counting numbers to at least 100. They develop recognition of patterns in the number system (including odd and even numbers) by counting in ones, twos, fives and tens. Children use first, second, third for example when ordering items. Children do not need to recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number as they will do this in Year 2. However, they should understand that they can tell whether a number is larger than another by looking at the first digit as well as the second digit.
Addition and subtraction
During the Foundation Stage, children related addition to combining two groups and subtraction to taking away when doing practical activities. In Year 1, children use mathematical statements to record addition and subtraction. They read, interpret and write the symbols +, – and =.
Through practice of addition and subtraction, children learn the number trios for numbers to 20 (8 + 5 = 13, 13 – 8 = 5, 13 – 5 = 8). They use different strategies to help them derive number facts, such as adding numbers in any order, or finding a difference by counting up.
Multiplication and division
In Year 1, children are introduced to the concepts of multiplication and division, although they will not use the standard signs (× and ÷) until Year 2. In practical activities, using arrays and physical objects such as blocks, children solve multiplication and division problems using small quantities. With support, children investigate the links between arrays, number patterns and their experience of counting in twos, fives and tens.
Children learn to identify halves and quarters by solving practical problems – for example, finding half of a set of ten blocks or a quarter of a square. They learn that the concepts of a half and a quarter apply to objects and quantities as well as to shapes. They link the idea of halves and quarters back to the concepts of sharing and grouping, which they use in their work on multiplication and division. They will build on this in Year 2 when they learn to write simple fractions.
In Year 1, children begin to use some common standard units, including measuring objects using rulers, weighing scales and jugs. They accurately use comparative language for length, weight, volume and time, such as longer/shorter, heavier than/lighter than, more/less, and quicker/slower.
Children read the time on analogue clocks to the hour and half-hour, and they learn to recognise different coins and notes. In Year 2, children will use standard units more independently and gain experience in telling the time and doing simple calculations with money.
Geometry: properties of shapes
In Year 1, children become familiar with a range of common 2D and 3D shapes, including rectangles, circles and triangles, cuboids, pyramids and spheres. They recognise these shapes in different orientations, sizes and contexts.
Geometry: position and direction
Children continue to use positional language accurately when describing where people or objects are in the environment. They experience the differences between half, quarter and three-quarter turns by practising making these turns in a clockwise direction.