# Year 3

The children explore a broad range of maths work that covers the main areas of ‘Number and Place Value’, 'Addition and Subtraction', 'Multiplication and Division', 'Fractions', 'Measurement', 'Geometry' and 'Statistics'.

**Number and place value**

In Year 2, children learned about place value in two-digit numbers. In Year 3, they will extend their understanding to include the place value of three-digit numbers – for example, 232 is two hundreds, three tens and two ones. They learn to count in 4s, 8s, 50s and 100s, and compare and order numbers up to 1000. They will read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and words. They begin to use estimation when dealing with number problems involving larger numbers. Solve number and practical problems using these ideas. Use multiples of 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 50, 100.

**Addition and subtraction**

In Year 3, children practise mentally adding and subtracting combinations of numbers, including three-digit numbers. When using written methods for addition and subtraction, children learn to write the digits in columns, using their knowledge of place value to align the digits correctly. Children begin to use estimation to work out the rough answer to calculations in advance and use inverse operations to check their final answers – for example, checking 312 + 43 = 355 by working out 355 – 43 = 312. Solve problems including missing number problems, using number facts, place value and more complex addition and subtraction.

**Multiplication and division**

In Year 3, children learn the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables, and use their knowledge of doubling to explore links between the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables. They use facts from these new multiplication tables to solve multiplication and division problems. Develop efficient mental methods using commutativity and associativity to derive related facts. Building on their work with written mathematical statements in Year 2, they begin to develop more formal written methods of short multiplication and division. They will extend this in Year 4 when they work with more complex multiplication and division problems. Solve problems involving missing number problems using multiplication and division and solve problems in context deciding which of the four operations to use and why.

**Fractions**

Building on work from Year 2, children learn about tenths, and confidently count up and down in tenths. They begin to make links between tenths and place value (ten units make a ten; ten tens make a hundred) and explore connections between tenths and decimal measures. Recognise, find and use fractions of discrete set of objects. Recognise fractions in the context of parts of a whole, numbers, measurements, a shape and unit fractions as a division of a quantity. Children extend their understanding of fractions to include more non-unit fractions (that is those with digits other than 1 as their numerator – for example, 1/5 is a unit fraction, and 2/5 is a non-unit fraction). Recognise and use fractions as numbers. Recognise and show using diagrams equivalent fractions with small denominators. They also begin to add and subtract fractions with the same denominator up to one whole, such as 3/5 + 1/5 = 4/5, 4/7 – 2/7 = 2/7. Compare and order fractions and fractions with the same denominators. Solve problems which involve all of the above.

**Measurement**

Children will learn to tell the time from analogue clocks including using Roman numerals from I to XII and 12-hour clocks and 24-hour clocks. They will use digital 12-hour clocks and record their times. They will move on to use digital 24-hour clocks in Year 4. Estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute. Record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o’clock, am, pm, morning, noon and midnight. Know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year. Compare durations of events. They will also learn to measure the perimeter of simple 2D shapes and solve addition and subtraction problems involving measure, compare add and subtract length, mass, volume and capacity. Progress to use a wider range of measures including comparing and using mixed units and simple equivalents of mixed units. Use scaling of measures. Add and subtract amount of money to give change using both £ and p in practical contexts.

**Geometry: properties of shapes**

Children will be taught to draw 2D shapes and make 3D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3D shapes in different orientations and describe them. Pupils’ knowledge of the properties of shapes is extended to symmetrical and non-symmetrical polygons and polyhedral. Pupils extend their use of the properties of shape. They should be able to describe the properties of 2D and 3D shape using accurate language, including lengths of lines. In Year 3, children begin to learn about angle as a property of shapes, and they connect the concept of angles with the idea of turning – for example, identify right angles. Recognise that two right angles equal a half-turn, three equal 3/4 turn and 4 a complete turn. They can identify whether a given angle is greater or less than a right angle (obtuse or acute). They can accurately identify and describe lines as horizontal, vertical, perpendicular or parallel.

**Statistics**

In Year 2, children were introduced to pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and tables. They need to interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables. They use these diagrams to answer an increasing range of questions, including two-step questions (in other words, those where there is a hidden question that needs to be answered before the main question can be tackled) For example, in order to work out *how many more cupcakes did Jon eat than Janie*, children first need to find out how many cakes each person ate. Understand and use simple scales in pictograms and bar charts with increasing accuracy.